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Non-ferrous metal production process

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Non-ferrous metal production, including geological exploration, mining, mineral processing, smelting and processing.

Geological Survey: geological exploration, through various means, methods of geological exploration, detection, need to find industrial non-ferrous metal deposits, and to identify the quality and quantity of the mineral, as well as the exploitation of the technical conditions mine construction design mineral reserves and geological data.

Mining: Mining from the earth's crust or surface to selectively capture and ore handling process. The vast majority of deposits in the ordinary mechanized method of mining. Mechanized mining is divided into open-pit mining (including ore and placer) and two categories of underground mining. The open-pit mining rock overlying the ore body peel, and then sequentially from top to bottom the orebody. Open pit surface Chang Lu, can use large mining machinery, safer operations, ore loss and dilution rate is low, production capacity, low-cost mining, the large lean iron ore deposits and building materials deposit method has been applied. When the ore body depth, the thickness of the ore body, stripping a lot of work, its cost is lower than underground mining, or the need to protect the surface and landscape, using underground mining methods. A complex occurrence conditions, and smaller industrial reserves of non-ferrous and rare metal deposits more than this method.

The main production process of mining include: (1) A quasi boring: has opened after deposit, according to the requirements of mining methods Preparatory Workings phasing mineralization block as an independent recovery unit. (2) recovery: caving ore crushing, loaded into the shipping container. Underground mining, including down the mine, the mining operations; open stope drilling, blasting and mining equipment operations. (3) Transportation: ore will be loaded into the shipping container delivered to the processing plant or ore bin.

Processing: using physical or chemical methods useful minerals in the mineral raw materials and unwanted minerals (usually called gangue) or separately in the harmful minerals, or a variety of useful mineral leaving the process, also known as "Mineral Processing".

Beneficiation process includes: (1) broken: the fragmentation of mining the ore block to a particle size of 5 to 25mm in the process. (2) ground: mainly grinding and shock. The crushed product was ground to a particle size of 10 ~ 300μm size. (3) screening and grading: the size of the sieve screen surface the material is divided into different levels of granularity that screening, commonly used in the treatment of coarse-grained materials. By particles in the medium (usually water) in the settling velocity of the type, the material is divided into the type, such as lowering levels, said grading for the smaller particle size material. The screening and grading is separated in the process of crushing the proper size, materials, or materials were selected into different levels of granularity. ④ sorting operations: mineral raw materials by crushing operations backward selected other operations, so that the useful minerals and gangue separation, or a variety of useful minerals are separated from each other. Selected
Other operations of the product, the useful component enriched concentrate smelting industry raw material for the extraction of metals; unwanted ingredients enriched tailings; useful content of the component between the concentrates and tailings, the need for further processinghereinafter referred to mine.



Smelting: smelting method such as roasting, smelting, electrolysis, and the use of chemicals to the metal in the ore extracted from the process.

Non-ferrous metal smelting process is usually divided into the pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical and electric metallurgy. Pyrometallurgical generally have to concentrate, capacity to take advantage of the heat of combustion of sulfur in sulfide minerals, can economically recover precious metals, rare metals, etc.; but often difficult to achieve good environmental protection. Hydrometallurgical commonly used in the processing of polymetallic ore, low grade ore and difficult beneficiation; the power metallurgy applicable in the production of aluminum, magnesium, sodium and other active metal. These methods for the treated mineral choose to use or be used in combination.

Processing: non-ferrous metal or alloy rods, wire, sheet, strip, bars, tubes, foil-shaped material in the process.

The processing of non-ferrous metal rolling, extrusion and stretching and other methods.

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